It is important to understand that there are two separate battles taking place in Iraq: there is the political rift between the Sunnis, Shia and the Kurds and there is a foreign extremist group - ISIS - trying to take advantage of the political environment through violence. If the Iraqis can resolve their political differences, it will be far more difficult for ISIS to thrive. Moving forward, we should continue to evaluate additional steps to help combat ISIS as we see what the Iraqis are willing to do politically, but we must also firmly guard against mission creep.
important quotesunderstand quotesseparate quotesbattles quotestaking quotesplace quotesiraq quotespolitical quotesrift quotessunnis quotesshia quoteskurds quotesforeign quotesextremist quotesgroup quotesisis quotesadvantage quotesenvironment quotesviolence quotesiraqis quotesresolve quotesdifferences quotesdifficult quotesthrive quotesmoving quotesforward quotescontinue quotesevaluate quotesadditional quotessteps quotescombat quotespolitically quotesfirmly quotesguard quotesmission quotescreep quotes
It is not the actual greatness of national wealth, but its continual increase, which occasions a rise in the wages of labour. It is not, accordingly, in the richest countries, but in the most thriving, or in those which are growing rich the fastest, that the wages of labour are highest. England is certainly, in the present times, a much richer country than any part of North America. The wages of labour, however, are much higher in North America than in any part of England.
actual quotesgreatness quotesnational quoteswealth quotescontinual quotesincrease quotesoccasions quotesrise quoteswages quoteslabour quotesrichest quotescountries quotesthriving quotesgrowing quotesrich quotesfastest quoteslabour quoteshighest quotesengland quotespresent quotestimes quotesricher quotescountry quotespart quotesnorth quotesamerica quoteslabour quoteshigher quotesamerica quotesengland quotes
To found a great empire for the sole purpose of raising up a people of customers, may at first sight appear a project fit only for a nation of shopkeepers. It is, however, a project altogether unfit for a nation of shopkeepers; but extremely fit for a nation whose government is influenced by shopkeepers.
That this is the source of our fellow-feeling for the misery of others, that it is by changing places in fancy with the sufferer, that we come either to conceive or to be affected by what he feels, may be demonstrated by many obvious observations, if it should not be thought sufficiently evident of itself. When we see a stroke aimed and just ready to fall upon the leg or arm of another person, we naturally shrink and draw back our own leg or our own arm; and when it does fall, we feel it in some measure, and are hurt by it as well as the sufferer.
source quotesfellowfeeling quotesmisery quoteschanging quotesplaces quotesfancy quotessufferer quotesconceive quotesaffected quotesfeels quotesdemonstrated quotesobvious quotesobservations quotesthought quotessufficiently quotesevident quotesstroke quotesaimed quotesready quotesfall quotesleg quotesarm quotesperson quotesnaturally quotesshrink quotesdraw quotesback quotesarm quotesfall quotesfeel quotesmeasure quoteshurt quotessufferer quotes
Such regulations may, no doubt, be considered as in some respect a violation of natural liberty. But those exertions of the natural liberty of a few individuals, which might endanger the security of the whole society, are, and ought to be, restrained by the laws of all governments; of the most free, as well as or the most despotical. The obligation of building party walls, in order to prevent the communication of fire, is a violation of natural liberty, exactly of the same kind with the regulations of the banking trade which are here proposed.
regulations quotesdoubt quotesconsidered quotesrespect quotesviolation quotesnatural quotesliberty quotesexertions quotesliberty quotesindividuals quotesendanger quotessecurity quotessociety quotesrestrained quoteslaws quotesgovernments quotesfree quotesdespotical quotesobligation quotesbuilding quotesparty quoteswalls quotesorder quotesprevent quotescommunication quotesfire quotesliberty quoteskind quotesbanking quotestrade quotesproposed quotes
Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production; and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer. The maxim is so perfectly self-evident that it would be absurd to attempt to prove it. But in the mercantile system the interest of the consumer is almost constantly sacrificed to that of the producer; and it seems to consider production, and not consumption, as the ultimate end and object of all industry and commerce.
consumption quotessole quotesend quotespurpose quotesproduction quotesinterest quotesproducer quotesattended quotespromoting quotesconsumer quotesmaxim quotesperfectly quotesselfevident quotesabsurd quotesattempt quotesprove quotesmercantile quotessystem quotesconsumer quotesconstantly quotessacrificed quotesproducer quotesproduction quotesconsumption quotesultimate quotesobject quotesindustry quotescommerce quotes
Though the principles of the banking trade may appear somewhat abstruse, the practice is capable of being reduced to strict rules. To depart upon any occasion from those rules, is consequence of some flattering speculation of extraordinary gain, is almost always extremely dangerous, and frequently fatal to the banking company which attempts it.
principles quotesbanking quotestrade quotesabstruse quotespractice quotescapable quotesreduced quotesstrict quotesrules quotesdepart quotesoccasion quotesrules quotesconsequence quotesflattering quotesspeculation quotesextraordinary quotesgain quotesextremely quotesdangerous quotesfrequently quotesfatal quotescompany quotesattempts quotes
It may indeed be doubted whether butchers' meet is anywhere a necessary of life. Grain and other vegetables, with the help of milk, cheese, and butter, or oil where butter is not to be had, afford the most plentiful, the most wholesome, the most nourishing, and the most invigorating diet. Decency nowhere requires that any man should eat butchers' meat.
The machines that are first invented to perform any particular movement are always the most complex, and succeeding artists generally discover that, with fewer wheels, with fewer principles of motion, than had originally been employed, the same effects may be more easily produced. The first systems, in the same manner, are always the most complex.
machines quotesinvented quotesperform quotesmovement quotescomplex quotessucceeding quotesartists quotesgenerally quotesdiscover quotesfewer quoteswheels quotesprinciples quotesmotion quotesoriginally quotesemployed quoteseffects quoteseasily quotesproduced quotessystems quotesmanner quotescomplex quotes
The man who barely abstains from violating either the person, or the estate, or the reputation of his neighbours, has surely very little positive merit. He fulfils, however, all the rules of what is peculiarly called justice, and does every thing which his equals can with propriety force him to do, or which they can punish him for not doing. We may often fulfil all the rules of justice by sitting still and doing nothing.
man quotesbarely quotesabstains quotesviolating quotesperson quotesestate quotesreputation quotesneighbours quotessurely quotespositive quotesmerit quotesfulfils quotesrules quotespeculiarly quotescalled quotesjustice quotesthing quotesequals quotespropriety quotesforce quotespunish quotesfulfil quotesjustice quotessitting quotes
Among civilized and thriving nations, on the contrary, though a great number of people do no labor at all, many of whom consume the produce of ten times, frequently of a hundred times more labour than the greater part of those who work; yet the produce of the whole labour of the society is so great, that all are often abundantly supplied, and a workman, even of the lowest and poorest order, if he is frugal and industrious, may enjoy a greater share of the necessaries and conveniencies of life than it is possible for any savage to acquire.
civilized quotesthriving quotesnations quotescontrary quotesgreat quotesnumber quotespeople quoteslabor quotesconsume quotesproduce quotesten quotestimes quotesfrequently quoteshundred quotestimes quoteslabour quotesgreater quotespart quoteswork quotessociety quotesgreat quotesabundantly quotessupplied quotesworkman quoteslowest quotespoorest quotesorder quotesfrugal quotesindustrious quotesenjoy quotesshare quotesnecessaries quotesconveniencies quoteslife quotessavage quotesacquire quotes
Are you in earnest resolved never to barter your liberty for the lordly servitude of a court, but to live free, fearless, and independent? There seems to be one way to continue in that virtuous resolution; and perhaps but one. Never enter the place from whence so few have been able to return; never come within the circle of ambition; nor ever bring yourself into comparison with those masters of the earth who have already engrossed the attention of half mankind before you.
earnest quotesresolved quotesbarter quotesliberty quoteslordly quotesservitude quotescourt quoteslive quotesfree quotesfearless quotesindependent quotescontinue quotesvirtuous quotesresolution quotesenter quotesplace quotesreturn quotescircle quotesambition quotesbring quotescomparison quotesmasters quotesearth quotesengrossed quotesattention quoteshalf quotesmankind quotes
The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects are perhaps always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
man quoteslife quotesspent quotesperforming quotessimple quotesoperations quoteseffects quotesoccasion quotesexert quotesunderstanding quotesexercise quotesinvention quotesfinding quotesexpedients quotesremoving quotesdifficulties quotesoccur quotesnaturally quotesloses quoteshabit quotesexertion quotesgenerally quotesstupid quotesignorant quoteshuman quotescreature quotes
Let us suppose that the great empire of China, with all its myriads of inhabitants, was suddenly swallowed up by an earthquake, and let us consider how a man of humanity in Europe, who had no sort of connection with that part of the world, would be affected upon receiving intelligence of this dreadful calamity. He would, I imagine, first of all, express very strongly his sorrow for the misfortune of that unhappy people, he would make many melancholy reflections upon the precariousness of human life, and the vanity of all the labours of man, which could thus be annihilated in a moment. He would too, perhaps, if he was a man of speculation, enter into many reasonings concerning the effects which this disaster might produce upon the commerce of Europe, and the trade and business of the world in general. And when all this fine philosophy was over, when all these humane sentiments had been once fairly expressed, he would pursue his business or his pleasure, take his repose or his diversion, with the same ease and tranquillity, as if no such accident had happened. The most frivolous disaster which could befall himself would occasion a more real disturbance. If he was to lose his little finger to-morrow, he would not sleep to-night; but, provided he never saw them, he will snore with the most profound security over the ruin of a hundred millions of his brethren, and the destruction of that immense multitude seems plainly an object less interesting to him, than this paltry misfortune of his own. To prevent, therefore, this paltry misfortune to himself, would a man of humanity be willing to sacrifice the lives of a hundred millions of his brethren, provided he had never seen them? Human nature startles with horror at the thought, and the world, in its greatest depravity and corruption, never produced such a villain as could be capable of entertaining it. But what makes this difference? When our passive feelings are almost always so sordid and so selfish, how comes it that our active principles should often be so generous and so noble? When we are always so much more deeply affected by whatever concerns ourselves, than by whatever concerns other men; what is it which prompts the generous, upon all occasions, and the mean upon many, to sacrifice their own interests to the greater interests of others? It is not the soft power of humanity, it is not that feeble spark of benevolence which Nature has lighted up in the human heart, that is thus capable of counteracting the strongest impulses of self-love. It is a stronger power, a more forcible motive, which exerts itself upon such occasions. It is reason, principle, conscience, the inhabitant of the breast, the man within, the great judge and arbiter of our conduct.
suppose quotesgreat quotesempire quoteschina quotesmyriads quotesinhabitants quotessuddenly quotesswallowed quotesearthquake quotesman quoteshumanity quoteseurope quotessort quotesconnection quotespart quotesworld quotesaffected quotesreceiving quotesintelligence quotesdreadful quotescalamity quotesimagine quotesexpress quotesstrongly quotessorrow quotesmisfortune quotesunhappy quotespeople quotesmake quotesmelancholy quotesreflections quotesprecariousness quoteshuman quoteslife quotesvanity quoteslabours quotesman quotesannihilated quotesmoment quotesspeculation quotesenter quotesreasonings quoteseffects quotesdisaster quotesproduce quotescommerce quotestrade quotesbusiness quotesworld quotesgeneral quotesfine quotesphilosophy quoteshumane quotessentiments quotesfairly quotesexpressed quotespursue quotespleasure quotesrepose quotesdiversion quotesease quotestranquillity quotesaccident quoteshappened quotesfrivolous quotesbefall quotesoccasion quotesreal quotesdisturbance quoteslose quotesfinger quotestomorrow quotessleep quotestonight quotesprovided quotessnore quotesprofound quotessecurity quotesruin quoteshundred quotesmillions quotesbrethren quotesdestruction quotesimmense quotesmultitude quotesplainly quotesobject quotesinteresting quotespaltry quotesprevent quotessacrifice quoteslives quoteshuman quotesnature quotesstartles quoteshorror quotesthought quotesgreatest quotesdepravity quotescorruption quotesproduced quotesvillain quotescapable quotesentertaining quotesmakes quotesdifference quotespassive quotesfeelings quotessordid quotesselfish quotesactive quotesprinciples quotesgenerous quotesnoble quotesdeeply quotesconcerns quotesmen quotesprompts quotesgenerous quotesoccasions quotesinterests quotesgreater quotessoft quotespower quoteshumanity quotesfeeble quotesspark quotesbenevolence quotesnature quoteslighted quotesheart quotescounteracting quotesstrongest quotesimpulses quotesselflove quotesstronger quotespower quotesforcible quotesmotive quotesexerts quotesoccasions quotesreason quotesprinciple quotesconscience quotesinhabitant quotesbreast quotesjudge quotesarbiter quotesconduct quotes
If there is any society among robbers and murderers, they must at least... abstain from robbing and murdering one another. So beneficence is less essential than justice is to the existence of society; a lack of beneficence will make a society uncomfortable, but the prevalence of injustice will utterly destroy it.
To attempt to increase the wealth of any country, either by introducing or by detaining in it an unnecessary quantity of gold and silver, is as absurd as it would be to attempt to increase the good cheer of private families by obliging them to keep an unnecessary number of kitchen utensils.
The prudent man always studies seriously and earnestly to understand whatever he professes to understand, and not merely to persuade other people that he understands it; and though his talents may not always be very brilliant, they are always perfectly genuine. He neither endeavours to impose upon you by the cunning devices of an artful impostor, nor by the arrogant airs of an assuming pedant, nor by the confident assertions of a superficial and imprudent pretender. He is not ostentatious even of the abilities which he really possesses. His conversation is simple and modest, and he is averse to all the quackish arts by which other people so frequently thrust themselves into public notice and reputation.
prudent quotesman quotesstudies quotesearnestly quotesunderstand quotesprofesses quotesunderstand quotespersuade quotespeople quotesunderstands quotestalents quotesbrilliant quotesperfectly quotesgenuine quotesendeavours quotesimpose quotescunning quotesdevices quotesartful quotesimpostor quotesarrogant quotesairs quotesassuming quotespedant quotesconfident quotesassertions quotessuperficial quotesimprudent quotespretender quotesostentatious quotesabilities quotespossesses quotesconversation quotessimple quotesmodest quotesaverse quotesquackish quotesarts quotesfrequently quotesthrust quotespublic quotesnotice quotesreputation quotes
The prudent man is always sincere, and feels horror at the very thought of exposing himself to the disgrace which attends upon the detection of falsehood. But though always sincere, he is not always frank and open; and though he never tells any thing but the truth, he does not always think himself bound, when not properly called upon, to tell the whole truth. As he is cautious in his actions, so he is reserved in his speech; and never rashly or unnecessarily obtrudes his opinion concerning either things or persons.
prudent quotesman quotessincere quotesfeels quoteshorror quotesthought quotesexposing quotesdisgrace quotesattends quotesdetection quotesfalsehood quotesfrank quotesopen quotestells quotesthing quotestruth quotesbound quotesproperly quotescalled quotestruth quotescautious quotesactions quotesreserved quotesspeech quotesrashly quotesunnecessarily quotesobtrudes quotesopinion quotesthings quotespersons quotes
The interest of [businessmen] is always in some respects different from, and even opposite to, that of the public... The proposal of any new law or regulation of commerce which comes from this order... ought never to be adopted, till after having been long and carefully examined... with the most suspicious attention. It comes from an order of men... who have generally an interest to deceive and even oppress the public
interest quotesbusinessmen quotesrespects quotesopposite quotespublic quotesproposal quoteslaw quotesregulation quotescommerce quotesorder quotesadopted quotestill quoteslong quotescarefully quotesexamined quotessuspicious quotesattention quotesorder quotesmen quotesgenerally quotesdeceive quotesoppress quotespublic quotes
In regards to the price of commodities, the rise of wages operates as simple interest does, the rise of profit operates like compound interest. Our merchants and masters complain much of the bad effects of high wages in raising the price and lessening the sale of goods. They say nothing concerning the bad effects of high profits. They are silent with regard to the pernicious effects of their own gains. They complain only of those of other people.
price quotescommodities quotesrise quoteswages quotesoperates quotessimple quotesinterest quotesprofit quotescompound quotesinterest quotesmerchants quotesmasters quotescomplain quotesbad quoteseffects quoteshigh quotesraising quoteslessening quotessale quotesgoods quotesprofits quotessilent quotesregard quotespernicious quotesgains quotespeople quotes
The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life, seems to arise from over-rating the difference between one permanent situation and another. Avarice over-rates the difference between poverty and riches: ambition, that between a private and a public station: vain-glory, that between obscurity and extensive reputation. The person under the influence of any of those extravagant passions, is not only miserable in his actual situation, but is often disposed to disturb the peace of society, in order to arrive at that which he so foolishly admires. The slightest observation, however, might satisfy him, that, in all the ordinary situations of human life, a well-disposed mind may be equally calm, equally cheerful, and equally contented. Some of those situations may, no doubt, deserve to be preferred to others: but none of them can deserve to be pursued with that passionate ardour which drives us to violate the rules either of prudence or of justice; or to corrupt the future tranquillity of our minds, either by shame from the remembrance of our own folly, or by remorse from the horror of our own injustice.
great quotessource quotesmisery quotesdisorders quoteshuman quoteslife quotesarise quotesoverrating quotesdifference quotespermanent quotessituation quotesavarice quotesoverrates quotespoverty quotesriches quotesambition quotesprivate quotespublic quotesstation quotesvainglory quotesobscurity quotesextensive quotesreputation quotesperson quotesinfluence quotesextravagant quotespassions quotesmiserable quotesactual quotessituation quotesdisposed quotesdisturb quotespeace quotessociety quotesorder quotesarrive quotesfoolishly quotesadmires quotesslightest quotesobservation quotessatisfy quotesordinary quotessituations quoteswelldisposed quotesmind quotesequally quotescalm quotescheerful quotescontented quotesdoubt quotesdeserve quotespreferred quotespursued quotespassionate quotesardour quotesdrives quotesviolate quotesrules quotesprudence quotesjustice quotescorrupt quotesfuture quotestranquillity quotesminds quotesshame quotesremembrance quotesfolly quotesremorse quoteshorror quotesinjustice quotes
The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition is so powerful that it is alone, and without any assistance, capable not only of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity, but of surmounting 100 impertinent obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often encumbers its operations.
The liberal reward of labor, therefore, as it is the necessary effect, so it is the natural symptom of increasing national wealth. The scanty maintenance of the laboring poor, on the other hand, is the natural symptom that things are at a stand, and their starving condition that they going backwards fast.
A monopoly granted either to an individual or to a trading company has the same effect as a secret in trade or manufactures. The monopolists, by keeping the market constantly understocked, by never fully supplying the effectual demand, sell their commodities much above the natural price, and raise their emoluments, whether they consist in wages or profit, greatly above their natural rate.
monopoly quotesgranted quotesindividual quotestrading quotescompany quoteseffect quotessecret quotestrade quotesmanufactures quotesmonopolists quoteskeeping quotesmarket quotesconstantly quotesunderstocked quotesfully quotessupplying quoteseffectual quotesdemand quotessell quotescommodities quotesnatural quotesprice quotesraise quotesemoluments quotesconsist quoteswages quotesprofit quotesgreatly quotesrate quotes
In every part of the universe we observe means adjusted with the nicest artifice to the ends which they are intended to produce; and in the mechanism of a plant, or animal body, admire how every thing is contrived for advancing the two great purposes of nature, the support of the individual, and the propagation of the species.
part quotesuniverse quotesobserve quotesmeans quotesadjusted quotesnicest quotesartifice quotesends quotesintended quotesproduce quotesmechanism quotesplant quotesanimal quotesbody quotesadmire quotesthing quotescontrived quotesadvancing quotesgreat quotespurposes quotesnature quotessupport quotesindividual quotespropagation quotesspecies quotes
The directors of such companies, however, being the managers rather of other people's money than of their own, it cannot well be expected, that they should watch over it with the same anxious vigilance with which the partners in a private copartnery frequently watch over their own.... Negligence and profusion, therefore, must always prevail, more or less, in the management of the affairs of such a company.
Every individual necessarily labors to render the annual revenue of society as great as he can. He generally neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. He intends only his own gain, and he is, in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was not part of his intention.
We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations [that is, unions or colluding organizations] of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual price.
rarely quoteshear quotescombinations quotesunions quotescolluding quotesorganizations quotesmasters quotesfrequently quotesworkmen quotesimagines quotesaccount quotesmasters quotescombine quotesignorant quotesworld quotessubject quotesmasters quotessort quotestacit quotesconstant quotesuniform quotescombination quotesraise quoteswages quoteslabor quotesactual quotesprice quotes
When the toll upon carriages of luxury, upon coaches, post-chaises, etc. is made somewhat higher in proportion to their weight, than upon carriages of necessary use, such as carts, wagons, etc. the indolence and vanity of the rich is made to contribute in a very easy manner to the relief of the poor, by rendering cheaper the transportation of heavy goods to all the different parts of the country.
toll quotescarriages quotesluxury quotescoaches quotespostchaises quotesmade quoteshigher quotesproportion quotesweight quotescarts quoteswagons quotesindolence quotesvanity quotesrich quotescontribute quoteseasy quotesmanner quotesrelief quotespoor quotesrendering quotescheaper quotestransportation quotesheavy quotesgoods quotesparts quotescountry quotes
To hinder, besides, the farmer from selling his goods at all times to the best market, is evidently to sacrifice the ordinary laws of justice to an idea of public utility, to a sort of reasons of state; an act of legislative authority which ought to be exercised only, which can be pardoned only in cases of the most urgent necessity.
hinder quotesfarmer quotesselling quotesgoods quotestimes quotesmarket quotesevidently quotessacrifice quotesordinary quoteslaws quotesjustice quotesidea quotespublic quotesutility quotessort quotesreasons quotesstate quotesact quoteslegislative quotesauthority quotesexercised quotespardoned quotescases quotesurgent quotesnecessity quotes
It would be too ridiculous to go about seriously to prove that wealth does not consist in money, or in gold and silver; but in what money purchases, and is valuable only for purchasing. Money no doubt, makes always a part of the national capital; but it has already been shown that it generally makes but a small part, and always the most unprofitable part of it.
People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices. It is impossible indeed to prevent such meetings, by any law which either could be executed, or would be consistent with liberty or justice. But though the law cannot hinder people of the same trade from sometimes assembling together, it ought to do nothing to facilitate such assemblies; much less to render them necessary.
people quotestrade quotesseldom quotesmeet quotesmerriment quotesdiversion quotesconversation quotesends quotesconspiracy quotespublic quotescontrivance quotesraise quotesprices quotesimpossible quotesprevent quotesmeetings quoteslaw quotesexecuted quotesconsistent quotesliberty quotesjustice quoteshinder quotespeople quotesassembling quotesfacilitate quotesassemblies quotesrender quotes
The statesman who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals would not only load himself with most unnecessary attention but assume an authority which could safely be trusted to no council and senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of man who have folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.
statesman quotesattempt quotesdirect quotesprivate quotespeople quotesmanner quotesemploy quotescapitals quotesload quotesunnecessary quotesattention quotesassume quotesauthority quotessafely quotestrusted quotescouncil quotessenate quotesdangerous quoteshands quotesman quotesfolly quotespresumption quotesfancy quotesfit quotesexercise quotes