APAKarl R. Popper Quotes. (n.d.). Jar of Quotes. Retrieved , from JarofQuotes.com Web site: https://www.jarofquotes.com/view.php?id=while-differing-widely-in-various-little-bits-we-know-in-our-infinite-ignorance-we-are-all-equal-karl-r-popper
ChicagoKarl R. Popper Quotes. Jar of Quotes, 2019. https://www.jarofquotes.com/view.php?id=while-differing-widely-in-various-little-bits-we-know-in-our-infinite-ignorance-we-are-all-equal-karl-r-popper, accessed .
MLA"Karl R. Popper Quotes." Jar of Quotes, 2019. . https://www.jarofquotes.com/view.php?id=while-differing-widely-in-various-little-bits-we-know-in-our-infinite-ignorance-we-are-all-equal-karl-r-popper
The difficulties connected with my criterion of demarcation (D) are important, but must not be exaggerated. It is vague, since it is a methodological rule, and since the demarcation between science and nonscience is vague. But it is more than sharp enough to make a distinction between many physical theories on the one hand, and metaphysical theories, such as psychoanalysis, or Marxism (in its present form), on the other. This is, of course, one of my main theses; and nobody who has not understood it can be said to have understood my theory. The situation with Marxism is, incidentally, very different from that with psychoanalysis. Marxism was once a scientific theory: it predicted that capitalism would lead to increasing misery and, through a more or less mild revolution, to socialism; it predicted that this would happen first in the technically highest developed countries; and it predicted that the technical evolution of the 'means of production' would lead to social, political, and ideological developments, rather than the other way round. But the (so-called) socialist revolution came first in one of the technically backward countries. And instead of the means of production producing a new ideology, it was Lenin's and Stalin's ideology that Russia must push forward with its industrialization ('Socialism is dictatorship of the proletariat plus electrification') which promoted the new development of the means of production. Thus one might say that Marxism was once a science, but one which was refuted by some of the facts which happened to clash with its predictions (I have here mentioned just a few of these facts). However, Marxism is no longer a science; for it broke the methodological rule that we must accept falsification, and it immunized itself against the most blatant refutations of its predictions. Ever since then, it can be described only as nonscience-as a metaphysical dream, if you like, married to a cruel reality. Psychoanalysis is a very different case. It is an interesting psychological metaphysics (and no doubt there is some truth in it, as there is so often in metaphysical ideas), but it never was a science. There may be lots of people who are Freudian or Adlerian cases: Freud himself was clearly a Freudian case, and Adler an Adlerian case. But what prevents their theories from being scientific in the sense here described is, very simply, that they do not exclude any physically possible human behaviour. Whatever anybody may do is, in principle, explicable in Freudian or Adlerian terms. (Adler's break with Freud was more Adlerian than Freudian, but Freud never looked on it as a refutation of his theory.) The point is very clear. Neither Freud nor Adler excludes any particular person's acting in any particular way, whatever the outward circumstances. Whether a man sacrificed his life to rescue a drowning, child (a case of sublimation) or whether he murdered the child by drowning him (a case of repression) could not possibly be predicted or excluded by Freud's theory; the theory was compatible with everything that could happen-even without any special immunization treatment. Thus while Marxism became non-scientific by its adoption of an immunizing strategy, psychoanalysis was immune to start with, and remained so. In contrast, most physical theories are pretty free of immunizing tactics and highly falsifiable to start with. As a rule, they exclude an infinity of conceivable possibilities.
Karl R. Popper
difficulties quotesconnected quotescriterion quotesdemarcation quotesd quotesimportant quotesexaggerated quotesvague quotesmethodological quotesrule quotesscience quotesnonscience quotesvague quotessharp quotesmake quotesdistinction quotesphysical quotestheories quoteshand quotesmetaphysical quotestheories quotespsychoanalysis quotesmarxism quotespresent quotesform quotesmain quotestheses quotesunderstood quotestheory quotessituation quotesincidentally quotespsychoanalysis quotesscientific quotestheory quotespredicted quotescapitalism quoteslead quotesincreasing quotesmisery quotesmild quotesrevolution quotessocialism quoteshappen quotestechnically quoteshighest quotesdeveloped quotescountries quotestechnical quotesevolution quotesmeans quotesproduction quotessocial quotespolitical quotesideological quotesdevelopments quotesround quotessocalled quotessocialist quotesrevolution quotesbackward quotescountries quotesmeans quotesproduction quotesproducing quotesideology quoteslenins quotesstalins quotesideology quotesrussia quotespush quotesforward quotesindustrialization quotessocialism quotesdictatorship quotesproletariat quoteselectrification quotespromoted quotesdevelopment quotesproduction quotesscience quotesrefuted quotesfacts quoteshappened quotesclash quotespredictions quotesmentioned quotesfacts quoteslonger quotesscience quotesbroke quotesrule quotesaccept quotesfalsification quotesimmunized quotesblatant quotesrefutations quotespredictions quotesnonscienceas quotesdream quotesmarried quotescruel quotesreality quotespsychoanalysis quotescase quotesinteresting quotespsychological quotesmetaphysics quotesdoubt quotestruth quotesideas quotesscience quoteslots quotespeople quotesfreudian quotesadlerian quotescases quotesfreud quotescase quotesadler quotesprevents quotessense quotessimply quotesexclude quotesphysically quoteshuman quotesbehaviour quotesprinciple quotesexplicable quotesterms quotesadlers quotesbreak quotesfreudian quoteslooked quotesrefutation quotestheory quotespoint quotesclear quotesexcludes quotespersons quotesacting quotesoutward quotescircumstances quotesman quotessacrificed quoteslife quotesrescue quotesdrowning quoteschild quotescase quotessublimation quotesmurdered quotesdrowning quotesrepression quotespossibly quotesexcluded quotesfreuds quotestheory quotestheory quotescompatible quoteshappeneven quotesspecial quotesimmunization quotestreatment quotesnonscientific quotesadoption quotesimmunizing quotesstrategy quotespsychoanalysis quotesimmune quotesstart quotesremained quotescontrast quotespretty quotesfree quotestactics quoteshighly quotesfalsifiable quotesinfinity quotesconceivable quotespossibilities quotes
The so-called paradox of freedom is the argument that freedom in the sense of absence of any constraining control must lead to very great restraint, since it makes the bully free to enslave the meek. The idea is, in a slightly different form, and with very different tendency, clearly expressed in Plato. Less well known is the paradox of tolerance: Unlimited tolerance must lead to the disappearance of tolerance. If we extend unlimited tolerance even to those who are intolerant, if we are not prepared to defend a tolerant society against the onslaught of the intolerant, then the tolerant will be destroyed, and tolerance with them. - In this formulation, I do not imply, for instance, that we should always suppress the utterance of intolerant philosophies; as long as we can counter them by rational argument and keep them in check by public opinion, suppression would certainly be unwise. But we should claim the right to suppress them if necessary even by force; for it may easily turn out that they are not prepared to meet us on the level of rational argument, but begin by denouncing all argument; they may forbid their followers to listen to rational argument, because it is deceptive, and teach them to answer arguments by the use of their fists or pistols. We should therefore claim, in the name of tolerance, the right not to tolerate the intolerant. We should claim that any movement preaching intolerance places itself outside the law, and we should consider incitement to intolerance and persecution as criminal, in the same way as we should consider incitement to murder, or to kidnapping, or to the revival of the slave trade, as criminal.
Karl R. Popper
socalled quotesparadox quotesfreedom quotesargument quotessense quotesabsence quotesconstraining quotescontrol quoteslead quotesgreat quotesrestraint quotesmakes quotesbully quotesfree quotesenslave quotesmeek quotesidea quotesslightly quotesform quotestendency quotesexpressed quotesplato quotestolerance quotesunlimited quotestolerance quotesdisappearance quotestolerance quotesextend quotesunlimited quotesintolerant quotesprepared quotesdefend quotestolerant quotessociety quotesonslaught quotesdestroyed quotesformulation quotesimply quotesinstance quotessuppress quotesutterance quotesintolerant quotesphilosophies quoteslong quotescounter quotesrational quotescheck quotespublic quotesopinion quotessuppression quotesunwise quotesclaim quotesforce quoteseasily quotesturn quotesmeet quoteslevel quotesargument quotesbegin quotesdenouncing quotesargument quotesforbid quotesfollowers quoteslisten quotesdeceptive quotesteach quotesanswer quotesarguments quotesfists quotespistols quotesclaim quotestolerance quotestolerate quotesintolerant quotesmovement quotespreaching quotesintolerance quotesplaces quoteslaw quotesincitement quotespersecution quotescriminal quotesmurder quoteskidnapping quotesrevival quotesslave quotestrade quotescriminal quotes
The more we learn about the world, and the deeper our learning, the more conscious, specific, and articulate will be our knowledge of what we do not know; our knowledge of our ignorance. For this indeed, is the main source of our ignorance - the fact that our knowledge can be only finite, while our ignorance must necessarily be infinite.
Karl R. Popper
learn quotesworld quotesdeeper quoteslearning quotesconscious quotesspecific quotesarticulate quotesknowledge quotesignorance quotesmain quotessource quotesignorance quotesfact quotesfinite quotesnecessarily quotesinfinite quotes
We all have an unscientific weakness for being always in the right, and this weakness seems to be particularly common among professional and amateur politicians. But the only way to apply something like scientific method in politics is to proceed on the assumption that there can be no political move which has no drawbacks, no undesirable consequences. To look out for these mistakes, to find them, to bring them into the open, to analyse them, and to learn from them, this is what a scientific politician as well as a political scientist must do. Scientific method in politics means that the great art of convincing ourselves that we have not made any mistakes, of ignoring them, of hiding them, and of blaming others from them, is replaced by the greater art of accepting the responsibility for them, of trying to learn from them, and of applying this knowledge so that we may avoid them in future.
Karl R. Popper
unscientific quotesweakness quotescommon quotesprofessional quotesamateur quotespoliticians quotesapply quotesscientific quotesmethod quotespolitics quotesproceed quotesassumption quotespolitical quotesmove quotesdrawbacks quotesundesirable quotesconsequences quotesmistakes quotesfind quotesbring quotesopen quotesanalyse quoteslearn quotespolitician quotesscientist quotesscientific quotesmeans quotesgreat quotesart quotesconvincing quotesmade quotesignoring quoteshiding quotesblaming quotesreplaced quotesgreater quotesaccepting quotesresponsibility quotesapplying quotesknowledge quotesavoid quotesfuture quotes
But it seems to me that what is essential to "creative" or "inventive" thinking is a combination of intense interest in some problem )and thus a readiness to try again and again) with highly critical thinking; with a readiness to attack even those presuppositions which for less critical thought determine the limits of the range from which trials (conjectures) are selected; with an imaginative freedom that allows us to see so far u nsuspected sources of error: possible prejudices in need of critical examination.
Karl R. Popper
essential quotescreative quotesinventive quotesthinking quotescombination quotesintense quotesinterest quotesproblem quotesreadiness quoteshighly quotescritical quotesthinking quotesattack quotespresuppositions quotesthought quotesdetermine quoteslimits quotesrange quotestrials quotesconjectures quotesselected quotesimaginative quotesfreedom quotesu quotesnsuspected quotessources quoteserror quotesprejudices quotesexamination quotes
As indicated by our example, methodological nominalism is nowadays fairly generally accepted in the natural sciences. The problems of the social sciences, on the other hand, are still for the most part treated by essentialist methods. This is, in my opinion, one of the main reasons for their backwardness.
Karl R. Popper
methodological quotesnominalism quotesnowadays quotesfairly quotesgenerally quotesaccepted quotesnatural quotessciences quotesproblems quotessocial quotessciences quoteshand quotespart quotestreated quotesessentialist quotesmethods quotesopinion quotesmain quotesreasons quotesbackwardness quotes
ultimate quotesstatements quotesscience quotesscience quotestested quotesprinciple quotesrefuted quotesfalsifying quotesconclusions quotesdeduced quotes
Perhaps the most powerful cause of the breakdown of the closed society was the development of sea-communications and commerce. Close contact with other tribes is liable to undermine the feeling of necessity with which tribal institutions are viewed; and trade, commercial initiative, appears to be one of the few forms in which individual initiative and independence can assert itself, even in a society in which tribalism still prevails. These two, seafaring and commerce, became the main characteristics of Athenian imperialism, as it developed in the fifth century B.C. And indeed they were recognized as the most dangerous developments by the oligarchs, the members of the privileged, or of the formerly privileged, classes of Athens.
Karl R. Popper
powerful quotesbreakdown quotesclosed quotessociety quotesdevelopment quotesseacommunications quotescommerce quotesclose quotescontact quotestribes quotesliable quotesundermine quotesfeeling quotesnecessity quotestribal quotesinstitutions quotesviewed quotestrade quotescommercial quotesinitiative quotesappears quotesforms quotesindividual quotesinitiative quotesindependence quotesassert quotestribalism quotesprevails quotesseafaring quotescommerce quotesmain quotescharacteristics quotesathenian quotesimperialism quotesdeveloped quotescentury quotesbc quotesrecognized quotesdangerous quotesdevelopments quotesoligarchs quotesmembers quotesprivileged quotesclasses quotesathens quotes
social quotescreatures quotesinmost quotescentre quotesnotion quotesbegin quotesscratch quotesfree quotespast quotesunindebted quotesconceivably quoteswrong quotes
complete quotesnihilism quotespropose quoteslaying quotesarms quotesworld quotesatom quotesbombs quotessimple quotesachieving quotespeace quotesweapons quotes
I remained a socialist for several years, even after my rejection of Marxism; and if there could be such a thing as socialism combined with individual liberty, I would be a socialist still. For nothing could be better than living a modest, simple, and free life in an egalitarian society. It took some time before I recognized this as no more than a beautiful dream; that freedom is more important than equality; that the attempt to realize equality endangers freedom; and that, if freedom is lost, there will not even be equality among the unfree.
Karl R. Popper
remained quotessocialist quotesyears quotesrejection quotesmarxism quotesthing quotessocialism quotescombined quotesindividual quotesliberty quotesliving quotesmodest quotessimple quotesfree quoteslife quotesegalitarian quotessociety quotestime quotesrecognized quotesbeautiful quotesdream quotesfreedom quotesimportant quotesequality quotesattempt quotesrealize quotesequality quotesendangers quotesfreedom quoteslost quotesunfree quotes