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L'amour ne peut pas se passer d'echange, de petits billets doux que l'on s'adresse et se renvoie. L'amour est peut-eªtre la plus belle forme du dialogue que l'homme a invente pour se repondre e lui-meªme. Et c'est le justement que l'art du ventriloque a un re´le immense e jouer. Les grands ventriloques ont ete avant tout des liberateurs : ils nous permettent de sortir de nos cachots solitaires et de fraterniser avec l'univers. C'est nous qui faisons parler le monde, la matie¨re inanimee, c'est ce qu'on appelle la culture, qui fait parler le neant et le silence. La liberation, tout est le. Je donne des lee§ons e Fresnes; les prisonniers apprennent e faire parler les barreaux, les murs, e humaniser le monde. Philoloque a dit qu'une seule definition de l'homme est possible : l'homme est une declaration d'intention, et j'ajouterais qu'il fait qu'elle soit faite hors du contexte. Je ree§ois ici toutes sortes de muets interieurs pour causes exterieures, pour cause de contexte, et je les aide e se liberer. Tous mes clients cachent honteusement une voix secre¨te, car ils savent que la societe se defend. Par exemple, elle ferme les bordels, pour fermer les yeux. C'est ce qu'on appelle morale, bonnes moeurs et suppression de la prostitution authentique et noble, celle qui ne se sert pas du cul mais des principes, des idees, du parlement, de la grandeur, de l'espoir, du peuple, puisse continuer par des voies officielles. Il vient donc un moment oe¹ vous n'en pouvez plus et oe¹ vous eªtes devore par le besoin de verite et d'authenticite, de poser des questions et de recevoir des reponses, bref, de communiquer - de communiquer avec tout, avec le tout, et c'est le qu'il convient de faire appel e l'art. C'est le que le ventriloque entre en jeu et rend la creation possible. Je suis reconnu d'utilite publique par monsieur Marcellin, notre ancien Ministre de l'Interieur, et monsieur Druon, notre ancien Ministre de la Culture et j'ai ree§u l'autorisation d'exercer de l'Ordre des Medecins, car il n'y a aucun risque. Tout demeure comme avant, mais on se sent mieux.

Romain Gary
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We are all poor; but there is a difference between what Mrs. Spark intends by speaking of 'slender means', and what Stevens called our poverty or Sartre our need, besoin. The poet finds his brief, fortuitous concords, it is true: not merely 'what will suffice, ' but 'the freshness of transformation, ' the 'reality of decreation, ' the 'gaiety of language.' The novelist accepts need, the difficulty of relating one's fictions to what one knows about the nature of reality, as his donnee. It is because no one has said more about this situation, or given such an idea of its complexity, that I want to devote most of this talk to Sartre and the most relevant of his novels, La Nausee. As things go now it isn't of course very modern; Robbe-Grillet treats it with amused reverence as a valuable antique. But it will still serve for my purposes. This book is doubtless very well known to you; I can't undertake to tell you much about it, especially as it has often been regarded as standing in an unusually close relation to a body of philosophy which I am incompetent to expound. Perhaps you will be charitable if I explain that I shall be using it and other works of Sartre merely as examples. What I have to do is simply to show that La Nausee represents, in the work of one extremely important and representative figure, a kind of crisis in the relation between fiction and reality, the tension or dissonance between paradigmatic form and contingent reality. That the mood of Sartre has sometimes been appropriate to the modern demythologized apocalypse is something I shall take for granted; his is a philosophy of crisis, but his world has no beginning and no end. The absurd dishonesty of all prefabricated patterns is cardinal to his beliefs; to cover reality over with eidetic images-illusions persisting from past acts of perception, as some abnormal children 'see' the page or object that is no longer before them -to do this is to sink into mauvaise foi. This expression covers all comfortable denials of the undeniable-freedom -by myths of necessity, nature, or things as they are. Are all the paradigms of fiction eidetic? Is the unavoidable, insidious, comfortable enemy of all novelists mauvaise foi? Sartre has recently, in his first instalment of autobiography, talked with extraordinary vivacity about the roleplaying of his youth, of the falsities imposed upon him by the fictive power of words. At the beginning of the Great War he began a novel about a French private who captured the Kaiser, defeated him in single combat, and so ended the war and recovered Alsace. But everything went wrong. The Kaiser, hissed by the poilus, no match for the superbly fit Private Perrin, spat upon and insulted, became 'somehow heroic.' Worse still, the peace, which should instantly have followed in the real world if this fiction had a genuine correspondence with reality, failed to occur. 'I very nearly renounced literature, ' says Sartre. Roquentin, in a subtler but basically similar situation, has the same reaction. Later Sartre would find again that the hero, however assiduously you use the pitchfork, will recur, and that gaps, less gross perhaps, between fiction and reality will open in the most close-knit pattern of words. Again, the young Sartre would sometimes, when most identified with his friends at the lycee, feel himself to be 'freed at last from the sin of existing'-this is also an expression of Roquentin's, but Roquentin says it feels like being a character in a novel. How can novels, by telling lies, convert existence into being? We see Roquentin waver between the horror of contingency and the fiction of aventures. In Les Mots Sartre very engagingly tells us that he was Roquentin, certainly, but that he was Sartre also, 'the elect, the chronicler of hells' to whom the whole novel of which he now speaks so derisively was a sort of aventure, though what was represented within it was 'the unjustified, brackish existence of my fellow-creatures.

Frank Kermode
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